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Masters of Rome
from Marius to Caesar
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Full list of characters

The following list includes both Roman and non-Roman characters. It is in alphabetical order, by nomen for Roman and Latinised names and by simple name for non-Romans. Additional information for some characters (but not all) can be found in the Genealogy data.

Numidian. Micipsa's principal heir and Jugurtha's principal rival for throne. Numidia partitioned between them until Jugurtha attacks and kills Adherbal in 112 BC.
Sulla's second wife, by an arranged marriage, but who fails to gain his love or even affection.
Marcus Aemilius

Princeps Senatus. Pontifex. Consul 115 BC, later censor
Ally of the Caecilii Metelli, enemy of Jugurtha
In 109 BC, as censor he sets in motion a major programme of public works. Refuses to resign as censor when his colleague dies.
Becomes staunch opponent of Marius after he is elected consul and Lex Manlia is passed.
With each passing year becomes ever more conservative and defends ancient rights and ways of government against any threat. Effectively the leader of the conservative "boni" or Policy Makers.
Ejects Saturninus from office, incurring his enmity, and takes over responsibility for supply of grain.
After Tridentum disowns his son, who then commits suicide.
Marcus Aemilius
Junior legate with army of Catulus. In charge of a legion at the retreat from Tridentum he loses his nerve, faints and disgraces himself. Sent to Rome with news of the retreat. Disowned by his father, he commits suicide.
Lucius Annius
Tribune of plebs 110 BC
Tries to stand again for 109 BC but fails
Titus Annius

Propraetorian governor of Sardinia in 104 BC
Suppresses some brigands but is refused a triumph. Insults the senate and holds his own triumph in Sardinia.
Lucius Antistius

Client of Caepio. Tribune of plebs 103 BC
Marcus Antonius

Gaul, Roman citizen and chief magistrate of Arausio
Marcus Antonius

Praetor 102 BC. Given the title of Governor of Cilicia and sent with a fleet to eliminate pirates in Eastern Mediterranean. After three year campaign returns to Rome in 100 BC.
Celebrates his triumph and is the elected senior consul for 99 BC
Lucius Appuleius

Quaestor 104 BC, responsible for port of Ostia
Accused by Scaurus of grain speculation during slave revolt and stripped of office and senatorial rank. Seeks Marius's patronage to stand as tribune of the plebs and wins election for 103 BC.
Tables several laws on Marius's behalf:
Law to distribute land in Africa to veterans
Prosecutes Mallius Maximus for losing his army. Mallius exiled
Lex Appuleia de Maiestate - treason trials (formerly in the Centuriate Assembly) to be conducted by a special court of knights.
Tries Memmius and Fimbria, who were behind the grain speculation, in the new court
Continues acting as a demagogue. When Metellus Numidicus tries to eject him from the senate, uses hired thugs to attack him.
Attacks senate for taking bribes from Mithridates (who is trying to undermine Roman support of Bithynia) Accused of treason for so doing, he again uses a mob to get acquitted.
Tribune for a second time in 100 BC, acts to put in place laws for Marius:
Laws to distribute land outside Italy to soldiers and to make citizens of some Italian soldiers. First land law deals with existing ager publicus. Second deals with new lands in Gaul from the Cimbric wars and requires senators to swear to uphold the law.
Attempts by conservatives to obstruct the law are overridden, casting doubt on the law, Even Marius is tricked into saying that he believes the law might be invalid. The senators swear to uphold the law expecting that is will be revoked later.
Passes populist grain law in response to shortages.
Becomes tribune again at elections for 99 BC
After Glaucia murders Memmius, tries a coup d'etat by inciting the crowd to overthrow the Senate. Granted special powers, Marius arms men loyal to the Senate and disperses the mob. Saturninus along with his followers surrenders. His followers are immediately executed, while Saturninus and his more senior followers are shut into the Curia to await trial for treason. There they are killed by tiles thrown down from the roof by a gang organised by Caepio Junior and the Piglet
Manius Aquillius
Praetor 105 BC
His father sold Phrygia to Mithridates V.
First to propose that Marius should be allowed to stand for consul in absentia.
Serves as legate to Marius in Gaul. Commands the detachment that takes the Cimbri in the rear at the battle of Aquae Sextiae.
Becomes junior consul the following year, 100 BC. Takes an army to Sicily and settles the slave rebellion.
Greek slave and leader of revolt in Sicily.
Athenodorus Siculus
Great beauty
At 13 chooses a plain, uncultured Gaul as personal servant in preference to more "acceptable" slaves.
Given freedom to choose, marries G Julius Caesar. Becomes landlady of an insula in the Subura
Marcus Aurelius
Consul suffectus in 108 BC after Galba exiled by Mamilian Commission.
Marcus Aurelius

Legate in army in Gaul 105 BC. Put in command of the cavalry advance guard north of Mallius's camp. Captured and tortured to death by the Germans
Marcus Aurelius
Marries his sister-in-law Rutilia after his brother's death
Praetor in 105 BC, he is part of group sent by Senate to try and reconcile Caepio and Mallius. Helps in the aftermath of Arausio and brings news of the defeat to Rome by boat from Massilia, beating Caepio.
Lucius Aurelius
Consul 119 BC. First husband of Rutilia and father of Aurelia
Lucius Aurelius
Tribune of plebs 103 BC
Gaius Baebius
Tribune of the Plebs 111 BC
Bribed by Jugurtha to interpose veto during trial by Gaius Memmius
Marcus Baebius
Tribune of the plebs 103 BC
Phrygian who arrives in Rome from the sanctuary at Pessinus and throws elaborate parties
Gaius Billienus
Praetor and governor of Asia in 105 BC
King of Mauretania. Father in law to Jugurtha.
Brother of Bocchus
Leader of the Cimbri from 105 BC
Half brother to Jugurtha (on mother's side)
Loyal supporter of and assistant to Jugurtha until he is persuaded to betray Jugurtha in exchange for Roman support to ascend the throne. Executed after Nabdalsa identifies him as a Roman agent.
Wife to Titus Pomponius
Caecilia Metella

Wanton sister of Metellus Numidicus; conducts public affairs with men including the lowest slaves and labourers
Caecilia Metella

Niece to Metellus Numidicus. Married to old Scaurus, but falls for Sulla at a dinner party
Gaius Caecilius
Metellus Caprarius

Censor 102 BC, together with his cousin Numidicus. Not as principled as Numidicus, he caves in to Saturninus.
Lucius Caecilius
Metellus Dalmaticus

Conservative senator
Pontifex Maximus
Consul 119 BC
Dies after giving speech opposing Saturninus
Quintus Caecilius

"Piggle Wiggle"
Conservative senator and younger brother of Dalmaticus
Hates Marius and Rutilius Rufus after they throw him into a pigsty at Numantia
Elected as consul for 109 BC
Despite his personal feelings for Marius and Rufus, recruits them as legates for his army in Africa.
After Marius's action in removing him from command in Africa, becomes a major figure in the anti-Marian camp, together with Scaurus.
Deeply hostile to Saturninus and his reforms.
Becomes censor 102 BC and tries to remove Saturninus from senate, but fails after a riot.
Another riot ensues when he refuses to enroll Equitius as a knight.
Refuses to swear to uphold second land law of Saturninus in 100 BC and goes into exile.
Quintus Caecilius
Metellus Pius

"The Piglet"
Serves under his father as cadet in Africa 109/108 BC. Is at the battle of Arausio with Mallius, who he helps to escape. Shock of the defeat leaves him with a stutter.
Treasury quaestor 100 BC. Refuses to spend money on grain purchases.
After attempted coup of Saturninus organises his murder in the Curia.
Devotes his efforts to securing the return of his father from exile.
Marcus Caelius

African landowner
Lucius Calpurnius

Junior consul 111 BC
As consul elect, bribed by Jugurtha to settle Numidian war in his favour
Indicted and condemned by Mamilian Commission
Marcus Calpurnius
Piso Bibulus

Old senator
Lucius Calpurnius
Piso Caesoninus

Traditional senator
Gallic servant girl to Aurelia
Lucius Cassius
Former censor. Head of religious court of inquiry in 114 BC.
Coined the phrase "Cui Bono?"
Lucius Cassius

Praetor 111 BC
Brought Jugurtha to Rome to answer questions about who he bribed
Senior consul 107 BC
Attacked Cimbri in Gaul, but after an initial victory was defeated and killed.
Lucius Cassius
Tribune of plebs 104 BC
Servant to Julilla
Gaius Claudius
Friend and supporter of Glaucia. Shelters him after murder of Memmius. Receives amnesty after failure of Saturninus's coup.
Widow of rich merchant, married Sulla's father
Gaius Coelius

Tribune of plebs 107 BC
Prostitute, acquaintance of Sulla's
King of the Volcae Tectosages. The Gold of Tolosa was stolen from his care and he reports to Marius that it was not stolen. Instead Caepio arranged for it to be shipped to the East.
Cornelia Minor
"Mother of the Gracchi"
Younger daughter of Scipio Africanus
Inspiration for Aurelia
Cornelia Sulla
Sister of Sulla
Lucius Cornelius

Governor of Further Spain in 99 & 98 BC
Gnaeus Cornelius

Praetor 109 BC. Declines governorship of Further Spain, because he is afraid he would exploit it.
Publius Cornelius
Scipio Africanus

Consul 147 and 134 BC
Son of L Aemilius Paullus, adopted by P Scipio
Besieged Numantia
Cornelius Scipio

Cornelius Sulla
Father of Sulla
Steward to Drusus
Lucius Decumius
Leader of crossroads college in Subura
Assassinates Massiva for Bomilcar
Becomes friend and helper to Aurelia after she buys the insula where his college is located
Titus Didius
Military man. Tribune of plebs 103 BC
Praetor 101 BC. Brings wars in Macedonia to a close.
Consul 98 BC. Campaigns in Nearer Spain, with Sulla as a legate.
Gnaeus Domitius

Conservative senator from old and wealthy family. Pontifex.
Consul 122 BC Built road through Gaul to Spain and subdued local tribes.
Dies 105 BC giving speech opposing Marius as consul.
Lucius Domitius

Younger son. Augur.
Gnaeus Domitius
Tribune of plebs 104 BC
Elected Pontifex Maximus in 103 BC
Tenant of the Julian Suburan insula. Actor. Evicted by Aurelia because of his parties
Lucius Equitius
Claims to be son of Ti. Gracchus. Helped by Saturninus
Elected tribune for 99 BC
Dies in the Curia with Saturninus after coup fails.
Steward to G Julius Caesar and Aurelia
Quintus Fabius
Maximus Eburnus

Born to a Servilius Caepio, adopted into the Fabius Maximus clan
Consul 116 BC
Appointed censor 109 BC
Gaius Flavius

Obscure and venal senator
Junior consul 104 BC
Plots with Memmius to manipulate grain prices. Prosecuted and exiled.
Lucius Fraucus
Marsic businessman, defended by Drusus
Marcus Fulvius

Tribune 122 BC. Associate and supporter of Gaius Gracchus
Marcus Fulvius
Flaccus Bambalio

Betrothed to Cornelia's granddaughter
Marcus Furius
Banker and client of Caepio
At Tolosa with Caepio in 106 BC. Supposed to have been killed accompanying Gold of Tolosa. Reported as having accompanied the gold to Smyrna.
Publius Furius
Tribune for 99 BC
Sickly half brother of Jugurtha and rival for the throne of Numidia. Becomes King after defeat of Jugurtha.
Quintus Gavius

Sulla's tutor
Lucius Gavius

Nephew of Clitumna
Poisoned by Sulla
Third leader of the Germans, followed by several smaller tribes - Marcomanni, Cherusci and Tigurini
Marius's first wife
Quintus Granius
Rich auctioneer, friend of Crassus Orator
Hercules Atlas
Strongman and performer
Cherusci woman who lives with Sulla while he is following the Cimbri. Bears him twin sons.
Prince of Numidia. Son of Jugurtha, exiled in Italy
Julia Major
Elder daughter of Grandfather Caesar. Marries Marius
Julia Minor
Younger daughter of Grandfather Caesar. Marries Sulla
Starts drinking heavily while Sulla is away at war. Commits suicide when he returns from Gaul in 103 BC, after seeing him with Metrobius.
Gaius Julius Caesar
Father of Caesar
Marries Aurelia
Junior legate to Metellus Numidicus in 109 BC
Legate to Marius 107 BC onwards in Africa and Gaul
Brings news of the victory of Vercellae to Rome.
Sextus Julius Caesar
Uncle to Caesar. Asthmatic.
Junior legate to Metellus Numidicus in 109 BC
Legate to Marius 107-105 BC
Legate to Mallius in Gaul 105 BC
Sextus Julius Caesar
Brother to Grandfather Caesar. Gave up his eldest son for adoption to Q. Lutatius Catulus. In exchange received money enough to put remaining two sons through cursus honorum.
Gaius Julius Caesar
Grandfather Caesar
Relatively impoverished descendant of Julii
Daughters marry Marius and Sulla
Helps Marius to equip his army in 107 BC
Gaius Julius Caesar

Cross eyed brother of Catulus. Lawyer
Marcus Junius

Junior Consul 109 BC
Governs in Rome while Metellus Numidicus sent to Africa. When Cimbri attack, sent as General to Gaul and suffers defeat.
Titus Labienus
Senator from Picenum, supporter of Saturninus
Dies in the Curia after coup fails.
? Licinius Getha
Appointed censor 109 BC
Publius Licinius

Lucius Licinius
Crassus Orator

Sybaritic orator and advocate
Established his reputation in 118 BC in speech in favour of the formation of colony at Narbo.
Quaestor 109 BC, Tribune of plebs 107 BC
Suitor of Aurelia
Aedile 100 BC
Publius Licinius

Tribune of plebs 110 BC
Tries to stand again for 109 BC but fails
Lucius Licinius

Praetor peregrinus 104 BC. Suppressed slave revolt in Campania.
Sent to Sicily in 103 BC to suppress slave revolt. When replaced as commander he disbands the army and destroys its camp.
Tried for treason for his actions by Manius Aquillius and exiled.
Publius Licinius

Praetor and governor of Sicily in 104 BC
Livia Drusa
Sister to Marcus Livius Drusus
Forced to marry Q Servilius Caepio who she detests
Marcus Livius

Tribune 122 BC
Opponent of the Gracchi
Consul 112 BC
Conquered Scordisci during his governorship of Macedonia
Becomes censor, dies 109 BC
Marcus Livius

Skilled advocate from the age of 17
Defender of Italians and Latins
Tribune of the soldiers 105 BC, goes to Gaul. In charge of legion next to the Marsi under Silo. Knocked unconscious, he survives the battle and befriends Silo who also has survived.
Quaestor 102 BC. Sent to Asia to buy grain from Mithridates.
Gaius Lucilius
Gaius Lusius
Nephew by marriage to Marius, serves with him as tribune. Makes homosexual advances to a soldier who murders him.
Quintus Lutatius

Rich senator, plebeian. Adopts son of Sextus Caesar
Quintus Lutatius

Son of Sextus Caesar, adopted by Q Lutatius Catulus
Praetor 109 BC
Stands against Marius for consul in 108 BC
Elected consul in 102 BC
Almost loses his army at Tridentum but Sulla foments a mutiny.
Second in command to Marius at Vercellae. Participates (as junior party) in triumph at Rome. Donates his spoils for the construction of a portico housing the captured standards from Vercellae.
Marcus Macrinus

Campanian landowner and slaveowner. Friend of Fimbria. Killed by slave army of Vettius.
Gnaeus Mallius

Consul 105 BC
Leads an army to Gaul.
Gaius Mamilius

Tribune of plebs 109 BC
Sets up treason court to try all those who dealt with Jugurtha
Aulus Manlius
Patrician senator. Legate to Marius in 107 BC
Titus Manlius

Tribune of plebs 107 BC
Hostile to patricians, agrees to put forward law assigning command in Africa to Marius
Wife to Grandfather Caesar
Lucius Marcius

Tribune of plebs 104 BC
His legislative services are bought by Marius
Syrian prophetess, prophesies Marius's greatness and seven consulships. Travels to Rome with Marius for the start of his second consulship
Founder King of Numidia
Cousin of Jugurtha and rival for the throne of Numidia
110 BC Assassinated by L Decumius after support from Albinus brothers worries Jugurtha
Gaius Matius
Broker and tenant of ground floor of Aurelia's insula. Keen gardener.
Gaius Memmius
Relatively poor senator from obscure background
Tribune of Plebs 112 BC
Organised enquiries into bribery by Jugurtha
Praetor 104 BC, allies himself with Fimbria. Together they plot to manipulate grain prices.
Governor of Macedonia
Prosecuted and exiled (to Athens). On appeal he is reinstated in the Senate and returns to Rome with Marcus Antonius. Stand for consul but is murdered by Glaucia
Homosexual lover of Sulla
Successor to Masinissa
Marcus Minucius

Senior Consul 110 BC
Governor of Macedonia, through 107 BC, continuing campaigns against the Scordisci
Quintus Mucius
Consul 117 BC
Quintus Mucius

Quaestor 109 BC
Orator and advocate
Aedile 100 BC
Follower of Gauda. Helps to establish contact between Gauda and Bomilcar but is caught and betrays Bomilcar.
Mistress of Sulla
Quintus Nonius
Brother-in law of Sulla's sister. Elected tribune of plebs 100 BC, but murdered on the election day, allowing Saturninus in.
Gaius Norbanus
Wealthy client of Marius from Etruria. Tribune of plebs 103 BC
Prosecutes Caepio in Plebeian Assembly
Gnaeus Octavius

Treasury quaestor 105 BC
Lucius Opimius
Praetor 125 BC, crushed revolt of Fregellae
Consul 121 BC. Attacked policies of Gaius Gracchus. Armed with a Senatus consultum ultimum, he used force to attack and kill Gracchus.
Responsible for partition of Numidia 116 BC
Indicted and condemned by Mamilian Commission
Gaius Oppius
Prince of Numidia. Son of Jugurtha, exiled in Italy
Tutor of Rufus. Dies February 109 BC
Gnaeus Papirius

Consul 113 BC
Defeated by Cimbri
Gnaeus Petreius
Primus Pilus in Samnite legion under Catulus. Takes charge after failure of Scaurus Junior and saves the legion.
Aulus Pompeius
Tribune of plebs 102 BC, complains about behaviour of Battaces. Battaces curses him and he dies.
Quintus Pompeius

From very wealthy family of Picenum Tribune for 99 BC
Gnaeus Pompeius

(Strabo: cross-eyed)
From very wealthy family of Picenum.
Quaestor in Sardinia 104 BC. Tries to prosecute his superior (Albucius) for treason. The senate does try Albucius, but Strabo is reprimanded by Scaurus for his insubordination.
Strabo thereafter harbours a grudge against the Senate and the conservative Patricians in particular.
Titus Pomponius
Rich banker
Publius Popillius
Gaius Popillius

Descendant of famous Roman who single-handedly ordered Syrian army to leave Egypt.
Legate to Longinus in Gaul, 107 BC. Left in charge of baggage and camp, negotiates surrender to Germans and Gauls. Allowed to return to Rome. Tried for treason but acquitted.
Quintus Poppaedius

Marsic noble. In charge of Marsic legion sent to Gaul in 105 BC. This legion is positioned on the right flank at battle of Arausio and is wiped out. Silo survives and is rescued from a pile of bodies by Drusus.
Gaius Porcius Cato
Indicted and condemned by Mamilian Commission
Marcus Porcius

Grandson of Cato the Censor and a slave. Tribune for 99 BC
Spurius Postumius

Junior Consul 110 BC
Governor of Africa, sides with Massiva against Jugurtha
Raises army in Africa, but does not take any offensive action against Jugurtha
At end of year returns to Rome, leaving his brother in charge.
Condemned by Mamilian Commission.
Aulus Postumius

Younger brother of Spurius, also helped Massiva's cause in Rome
Accompanies Spurius to Africa
Left in charge at the end of 110 BC, he invades Numidia, tempted by treasure. Starts Jugurthan War.
Junior consul 99 BC
Sister of Publius Rutilius Rufus and mother of Aurelia
Slave girl married by Cato the Censor after death of his first wife
Marsic slave, leader of revolt in 104 BC
Gaius Saufeius
Senator from Picenum, supporter of Saturninus
Elected quaestor for 99 BC
Dies in the Curia after coup fails.
Patron of Metrobius
Tiberius Sempronius

Elder of the Gracchi
Tribune of the plebs 133 BC
Used his post to attack patrician power and reform the government
Murdered in office
Gaius Sempronius

Younger of the Gracchi
Tribune of the plebs 123 BC
Continued his brother's attempts at reform
Quintus Sertorius
b. 125 BC, son of Marius's cousin Maria
Served on Marius's staff in 107 BC
Distinguishes himself in battle, winning gold crown
Brings Jugurtha back to Rome in 105 BC
Junior tribune with Mallius's army in Gaul. Severely wounded at battle of Arausio, left with a partly paralyzed leg. Serves in Gaul again with Marius, where he spies on the Germans, together with Sulla.
Marcus Servilius

Half-Numidian friend of Bomilcar. Refuses to assassinate Massiva and informs to Albinus.
So Lucius Decumius assassinates him also.
Gaius Servilius

Client of Ahenobarbus. Praetor 103 BC Takes over from Lucullus as governor of Sicily and continues the slave war, with no success.
Quintus Servilius

Conservative senator
Praetor 109 BC and governor of Further Spain
Consul 106 BC. Responsible for removing extortion courts from control of knights.
Takes command in Gaul against Germans
Finds Gold of Tolosa, which goes missing before reaching the coast. Its guards are killed.
105 BC refuses to submit to authority of the new consul Mallius Maximus. Flees the defeat at Arausio and leaves for Rome immediately with his son.
After news that he has stolen the Gold for himself, he is prosecuted in the Plebeian Assembly, fined and exiled. Dies in exile in Smyrna.
Quintus Servilius
Tribune of the soldiers 105 BC. Goes to Gaul with Mallius Maximus. Flees the defeat at Arausio and joins his father on his journey to Rome.
Treasury quaestor 100 BC, together with the Piglet.
Opposes grain law of Saturninus and organises gang to prevent the law passing but only delays it.
Prosecuted by Saturninus for treason in attacking him but acquitted.
After attempted coup of Saturninus organises his murder in the Curia.
Gaius Servilius

Quaestor 109 BC
Plebeian, lawyer
Friend of Saturninus and supporter of Marius.
Tribune of plebs 101 BC Introduces law returning extortion courts to knights control and allowing proceeds of crime to be recovered from all beneficiaries, not just the guilty.
Makes Saturninus tribune of plebs when Quintus Nonius is conveniently murdered.
Praetor 100 BC
Despite opposition from Marius, tries to stand for election as consul. Fights with Memmius, a rival candidate and murders him.
Seeks shelter in house of Gaius Claudius while Saturninus tries to overthrow the senate at the head of a mob. After the failure of the coup, Glaucia commits suicide.
Servius Sulpicius

Consul 108 BC
Indicted and condemned by Mamilian Commission
Leader of the Teutones from 105 BC
Sextus Titius
Tribune for 99 BC
? Turpilius
Friend of Metellus Numidicus. Appointed commander of Vaga garrison.
Betrays the town to Jugurtha, resulting in the slaughter of many Romans.
Publius Vagiennius
Ligurian cavalryman who discovers a way into fortress of Muluchath
Lucius Valerius

Junior consul to Marius 100 BC. Flamen martialis
Titus Vettius Junior
Son of a knight from Campania. After getting into debt and being disowned by his father, raises a slave army in Campania.
Numidian. Bocchus's son

Printable version ©Mark Emerson 2001. Acknowledgements to Steven H. Gibbs, Randy Winch and Tim Doyle. Back to top of page ^